Eight out of 10 cases of liver cancer are caused by this virus infection

March 18th is National Liver Day.
How’s your liver?

Liver, assume human body numerous important function, wait like metabolic function, detoxification function and immune function, it work with one mind, even if some common little pressure, also won’t complain (pain), even if had produced canceration, still be cautious and conscientious to work!

This is the main reason why liver cancer, once found, is at an advanced stage.

According to the latest data on the global cancer burden in 2020 released by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, liver cancer was the second most deadly cancer in China last year.

Source: Analysis of Malignant Tumor Epidemiology in China in 2015

In addition to the well-known bad habits of staying up late and drinking, which damage the liver, virus infection is one of the important causes of liver cancer in patients around the world.

What viral infections cause liver cancer?

In China, it is mainly caused by hepatitis B virus, which accounts for up to 84% of liver cancer in China.

For hepatitis B, vaccination against hepatitis B is the most effective way to prevent hepatitis B virus infection (none).

What person does second liver vaccine recommend vaccinate?

The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for newborns, infants, unimmunized people under the age of 15, and high-risk groups of all ages.

High-risk population of hepatitis B

Because China belongs to the hepatitis B epidemic area, that is, the carrier or patient base is relatively large, so from the safety point of view, it is suggested that high-risk groups are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  • It is estimated that 1 in 20 people in China are carriers of the hepatitis B virus and 1 in 50 are patients with chronic hepatitis B.

After all, hepatitis B virus is transmitted by means of mother-to-child, blood (including minor wounds to the skin and mucous membrane) and sexual contact, although it does not pass through the respiratory and digestive tracts.
Such as having sex with an infected partner or accidentally touching an infected person’s wounds or blood.

Of course, only when the blood of patient of infected second liver virus or deep body fluid, when contact with the blood photograph of infected person, second liver virus just spreads likely, everybody need not be overly anxious.

Vaccine against hepatitis B

You might even want to ask these questions!

Finally, for hepatitis B vaccine, you may still have some high-frequency questions, we invited experts to focus on the answer:

Q: Does a single vaccination give you a lifetime benefit?
Is it necessary to vaccinate again?

A: After the entire course of vaccination and the production of effective antibodies, it generally lasts for 30 years.
(The duration of the effect is controversial. Some data show that within 10 to 15 years after inoculation, 20% to 60% of the vaccinated patients have HBV surface antibody < 10 mIU/mL)

The general population is inoculated whole course, can produce higher antibody level, need not inoculate again.

High-risk crowd or the person that immune function has a problem, can check antibody of second liver surface regularly, if hemodialysis patient recommends to check every year, antibody of second liver surface < 10 mIU/mL recommends to vaccinate again.

Ask: vaccinate second liver vaccine, need to detect to have to produce effective antibody?

After average person is inoculated second liver vaccine, need not check second liver surface antibody.

Infants born to infected or infected mothers should be tested for HBV surface antibodies 7 to 12 months after birth (1 to 6 months after the third dose).

High-risk crowd, 1 ~ 2 months after inoculation is completed, can detect antibody of second liver surface.
If the surface antibody of hepatitis B is less than 10 mIU/mL, the protective effect is not enough, and immunization should be strengthened.

Ask: already be infected person of second liver virus, can you still make vaccine?
What do you need to pay attention to, and what do you need to remind the people around you?

A: No need to play.

Chronic B virus infection of the population, need to be clear hepatitis B virus DNA situation, if can detect infectious, it is recommended to follow up 3 to 6 months 1 time, liver function, hepatitis B DNA, hepatitis B three system quantitative, a fetoprotein, liver and spleen B ultrasound, blood routine and other examinations, when necessary to improve the liver hardness value.

Image source: Tuworm Creative

If HBV DNA cannot be detected, it is recommended to follow up once from 6 to 12 months, the same item as above.

Close contacts of HBV infected persons are advised to be vaccinated against HBV.

Ask: had not hit vaccine, need not need to check second liver first two half, determine to hit again not hit?

Answer: according to their own situation choice.

There is no need for routine screening prior to HBV vaccination. Even for those who are already infected and have antibodies, vaccination is safe, although not prophylactic, and can be cost-effectively eliminated from screening.

But to individual character, a lot of inoculation person is willing to undertake second liver infection at his own expense before inoculation detect, determine how to inoculate second liver vaccine according to detection result next, it is completely possible.

There is no need to take HBV carriers, chronic hepatitis B, HBV surface antibody ≥ 10 mIU/mL.

Ask: What distinction does chronic second liver virus carrier and chronic hepatitis B have?
Does hepatitis B virus need to be treated?

Answer: the carrier of chronic second liver virus, simple understanding has a virus on the body namely, but this virus and autoimmune system do not have fierce fight, also won’t affect liver function, can serve as a source of infection only.

Chronic hepatitis B is hepatitis, where the virus fights furiously with the body’s immune system, causing an inflammatory response that may require treatment.

Image source: Tuworm Creative

Not all hepatitis B patients need treatment.

In adults with normal immunity, acute hepatitis B mostly resolves itself without treatment.

Chronic hepatitis B virus carriers, when there is no treatment indications, only regular follow-up can be required, treatment after the appearance of treatment indications, through treatment can control the virus and stabilize the state of liver function.

Finally, since 2002, China has officially included the hepatitis B vaccine in the national immunization program for children, which means that the hepatitis B vaccine is free at birth.

But be born before 2002, do not know oneself whether had inoculated the small partner of second liver vaccine, can choose to inoculate directly, it may be to check quantitative second liver two half, judge whether to need inoculation again according to the result!

With heart disease and cancer at the same time, one operation solves both problems

One side is the serious coronary heart disease, the other side is the dangerous lung cancer, when these two diseases happen to a person at the same time, where to treat?
How to treat?
How to treat?
This series of problems, they are related to the life of Ms. Wang.

Ms. Wang is 57 years old this year. In recent years, in addition to common age-related diseases such as diabetes, fatty liver and high blood pressure, she has often suffered from severe heart palpitations and chest tightness in the past six months.

More than a month ago, when her palpitation and chest tightness became worse again, she went to the hospital, only to find out that she not only had a serious coronary heart disease, but also had lung adenocarcinoma.

Due to the complexity of the disease and the high risk of surgery, I went to many hospitals in the province but failed to find a better treatment.
Subsequently, Ms. Wang was introduced to the 8th ward of cardiovascular surgery (large vascular surgery) of Henan Chest Hospital.

After multiple consultations, experts concluded that Ms. Wang could have the same surgery as the bypass and removal of the malignant tumor in her lungs, which would solve both problems through one incision and one operation at the same time.

The operation was performed by Wang Pingfan, a famous cardiologist and vice president of the provincial chest hospital, and Zhang Li, director of the eight ward of cardiovascular surgery (large vessel surgery), and Gao Xia, chief physician.

With the cooperation of the team, the operation was successfully completed 6 hours later. After more than a week, she was discharged from hospital and went home smoothly.

Ping-fan wang said, with the development of the aging of the population, in recent years, at the same time suffering from coronary heart disease and malignant tumor patients increased year by year, the surgery mostly staging before operation, due to coronary heart disease (CHD) for at least three months after tumor resection, and the long waits to result in tumor progression and metastasis, so as to delay treatment, but with the improvement of medical technology progress and doctors, such a complex disease has a more professional way of treatment – the single incision surgery during this period, such not only can avoid the risks brought by the two operations, but also accelerate the postoperative recovery.

As a matter of fact, as early as 2011, Henan Chest Hospital took the lead in carrying out high-difficulty simultaneous cardiothoracic surgery for lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, mediastinal tumor combined with heart disease and other cardiothoracic surgery in China, and has accumulated a wealth of surgical experience.
In October 2020, the Department of Cardiac Surgery of this hospital successfully performed minimally invasive single-incision simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting + radical gastrectomy for a patient with only one kidney, which is the first case in China.

Pingfang Wang suggested that for patients with coronary heart disease complicated with malignant tumor disease, it is crucial to choose the appropriate treatment and timing of surgery. It is suggested that such patients go to a regular specialized hospital for medical treatment, and choose the appropriate surgical plan, so as to achieve better surgical results.

What are the symptoms of asthma

Asthma is a common disease that may strike at night and early in the morning, with intermittent onset.
The incidence of asthma is high, with a rate of 0.5-2.0% in China. Most of the patients are children or adolescents, and the onset season is autumn and winter.
What are the symptoms of asthma, the following experts for you to introduce.

Asthma symptoms

Warning symptoms: strenuous exercise, mental trauma, climate change will induce this disease, the onset of patients will appear dry throat, cough, wheezing clinical symptoms.
If the patient is infected asthma, there will be itching, sneezing, runny nose symptoms.

  1. Typical symptoms: the typical attack of asthma has a sudden paroxysmal exhalation mainly high dyspnea.
    Patients sitting breathing, cold sweat dripping;
    Both lungs can be heard wheezing, prolonged breathing, emphysema signs.
    Severe patients can hear wheezing in their lungs without an earpiece.
    The typical attack is more common at night. When the attack is about to stop, the patient can cough with a large amount of 100 mucous sputum coughed out.
    After coughing up white mucous sputum, dyspnea can be relieved, and the condition can be quickly controlled and returned to normal.
  2. Nighttime Asthma: During the night, asthma symptoms can become significantly worse.
    Besides reclining and bedside allergens, the mechanism of nocturnal asthma attack is obviously related to nocturnal sleep.
    Attention should be paid to sleep-induced breathing disorders.
    Sleep is not a contributing factor, but it is an important one.

Treatment of asthma

Know what the symptoms of asthma are and treat them early if they appear.
There are many ways to treat asthma, such as drug therapy, desensitization therapy, vaccine therapy, etc.
The goal of treatment is to alleviate symptoms, prevent recurrent attacks of the disease, and avoid reaction to drugs.
To alleviate symptoms, patients may inhale beta-2 agonists or hormones.
If the disease is severe, intensive treatment may be considered.
High doses of hormones should be given before treatment and then reduced after symptom relief.

Anti-inflammatory effects of enokine AHCC

What is inflammation

Chemical stimuli, harmful stimuli such as heat, and infections with pathogens such as bacteria and viruses can cause damage to cells and tissues, triggering a specific response called inflammation.
Celsus, a Roman physician, describes the local inflammation in his book as follows [1] : Notae vero sunt quattuor, rubor et tumor, cum calore et dolore. (Inflammation has four symptoms: redness and swelling accompanied by heat and pain.)

Inflammation is a defensive response to harmful stimuli, facilitating the repair process of damaged tissue, and producing biologically active substances to remove pathogens.
As bioactive substances, pain-inducing substances such as bradykinin and inflammatory mediators play a role.
So-called “inflammatory cells” (macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes) produce a variety of inflammatory mediators, namely, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines.
Among them, NO is produced by stimulated hepatocytes and Kupffer cells (macrophages in the liver) and removes these pathogens by killing bacteria and inhibiting viral proliferation [2].
In other words, hepatocytes and Kupfer cells are involved in the inflammatory response of innate immunity.
The level of induction of inflammatory mediators was almost correlated with the level of inflammatory response.

Systemic inflammation may follow acute inflammation, with sepsis following bacterial infection being the typical case.
In the liver, Kupffer cells were stimulated by Endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, producing not only NO but also interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) [3] (Figure 1).
The subsequent secretion of IL-1β stimulates the production of NO and TNF-α by hepatocytes.
If excessive production of NO causes systemic vasodilation, leading to septic shock [4].
Excessive TNF-α induces the production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a state also known as cytokine storm.
Overproduction of these NO and TNF-α leads to multiple organ failure as seen in fulminant hepatitis [5].
Therefore, the main component of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to induce the production of experimental mouse or rat septicemia model (liver failure model) [3,6].
In addition, IL-1β-treated hepatocytes [2] or LPS-treated macrophages [7,8] have often been used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of drugs and functional foods.

Inflammation causes disease, and disease causes inflammation.
Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, such as autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or cancer.
That is, inflammation is closely related to the pathophysiology, and sometimes the etiology, of these diseases.

If the inflammatory response is excessive or prolonged, it is not good for the body.
Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs are used to suppress undesirable inflammation and restore health.
In order to reduce inflammatory mediators such as NO, prostaglandins, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines to physiological levels, anti-inflammatory drugs and certain functional foods are required.
Therefore, inflammatory mediators are the best biomarkers for evaluating the effects of drugs and functional foods in cells, animals and humans.

Anti-inflammatory effects of AHCC

  1. Bioactive substances contained in AHCC

Functional food AHCC is extracted from the mycelium culture of Lentinula edodes [9,10].
AHCC is mainly composed of carbohydrates, of which α-glucan is the main component.
The content of α-glucan in freeze-dried AHCC was 28.9% (by weight), while the content of β-glucan was very low [9,11].
Among α-glucans, oligosaccharides containing partially acylated α-1, 4-glucans are considered to be active components of AHCC’s biological effects, such as antioxidant effects [12,13].
However, the anti-inflammatory effects of the molecules contained in AHCC have not been identified.

Active molecules with pharmacological activity in AHCC have been explored using hepatocyte models of liver disease in vitro [2].
Because NO is produced in response to IL-1β, primary cultured rat hepatocytes are often used as models for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS 2) production.
Matsui et al. [14] reported that adding AHCC to the medium could inhibit the increase of NO production induced by IL-1β, and reduce the production of iNOS protein and messenger RNA(mRNA) [14].

In addition, carbohydrates in AHCC were further studied.
In rat hepatocytes, the sugar component of AHCC inhibits NO production and reduces the expression of iNOS gene, which inhibits the induction of type I IL-1 receptor (IL1R1) expression [15].
On the other hand, glucose and dextrin are not known to significantly inhibit the induction of NO production by IL-1β in hepatocytes [16].
In addition, the sugar component of AHCC had no effect on the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the degradation of inhibitor α (IκB-α), which is an inhibitor of NF-κB.
NF-κB is a key transcription factor for the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as iNOS and inflammatory cytokines [17].

Recently, active molecules with inhibitory effect of NO have been purified and isolated from AHCC by combining various chromatographic methods.
Adenosine has been identified as a component of AHCC, which inhibits the expression of iNOS gene and reduces the production of inducible NO (50% inhibition concentration, IC50 value of 56μM) [18].
Like the sugar component of AHCC, adenosine inhibited inductive NF-κB activation and IL1R1 expression.
As a result, the expression of iNOS protein is inhibited, leading to the reduction of NO production [18].
However, due to the low adenosine content in AHCC, it is speculated that there are other NO-producing inhibitory molecules present in AHCC.
In addition, there appear to be anti-inflammatory components that play a role in other tissues such as the gut, and future research in this area is expected.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of AHCC in liver

In a ten-year cohort study of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, oral AHCC (3g/ day) improved their prognosis [19].
This study scientifically defined “functional food” and advocated AHCC as a functional food [20].
On the other hand, NO is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis and liver protection of various liver diseases.
As described above, AHCC and its sugar components inhibit NO production and iNOS gene expression in IL-1β-treated rat hepatocytes [14,15].
AHCC inhibits the expression of iNOS gene at the transcriptional level by inhibiting NF-κB activation [14].
AHCC, moreover, can be in the transcription level, reducing by iNOS transcription antisense iNOSmRNA stability, inhibition of iNOS gene expression [14, 21] (reference book Ⅲ – 3-3).
AHCC also reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in rat hepatocytes (Oshan, Cesar.
The data are not published).
Therefore, the inhibitory effect of AHCC on NO in liver cells may be related to the improvement of prognosis of patients with liver cancer after operation by AHCC.

Kim et al. reported that the administration of AHCC in patients with slightly elevated serum liver enzymes caused by alcohol reduced serum liver enzymes and inflammatory cytokines (markers of oxidative stress) [22].
Serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels were significantly reduced after 12 weeks of AHCC1 (1g or 3g/day).
The change rate of serum IL-1β level was positively correlated with the level of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum.
On the other hand, levels of adiponectin (adipocytokines) were higher in the AHCC group compared to the placebo group.
The results of this clinical trial suggest that AHCC may have protective liver function and anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of AHCC in intestinal tract

The role of AHCC in the intestinal tract of mice was also studied.
Mallet et al. administered AHCC to BALB/c mice for 7 consecutive days at a daily dose of 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0g/kg body weight, and prepared intestinal epithelial cell samples [23].
AHCC increased the number of immunoglobulin A (IgA) positive cells in the intestinal epithelium, and increased the secretion of IgA (SIgA), IL-10 and interferon-γ (INF-γ) in the intestine.
In the intestinal lumen, IgA plays a role in the frontier of antigen-specific immune defense, and SIgA prevents inflammation caused by intestinal bacteria [24].

In experiments with primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells, TLR2 and TLR4 in Toll-like receptors (TLR) were associated with immune responses induced by AHCC [23].
Therefore, AHCC may play a role in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell immune homeostasis through TLR2 and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways.

The anti-inflammatory effect of AHCC on the intestinal tract has been verified in an animal model of ulcerative colitis.
An experimental animal model of ulcerative colitis has been used as a model of human ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and other inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) [25].
Daddaoua et al., using a rat model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfate (TNBS), carefully examined the anti-inflammatory effect of AHCC [26].
AHCC (100 or 500mg/kg body weight) was administered daily from 2 days before TNBS administration, and rats were euthanized 6 days after TNBS administration.
The results showed that AHCC reduced intestinal inflammation.
In addition, AHCC not only improved mucosal injury score, necrotic area, and intestinal weight, but also reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-1 receptor agonist, and TNF-α), chemokines Ccl2 (also known as MCP-1), and trilobar factor 3 (TFF 3).
The anti-inflammatory effect of AHCC is almost the same as that of salazosulfapyridine, which is used to treat ulcerative colitis [26].

In vitro studies have recently reported the use of AHCC to treat intestinal epithelial cell lines (IEC 18 and HT 29) [27].
Different from the hepatocytes treated with IL-1β, the chemokines Ccl2 and Cxcl1 of IEC18 cells can be induced to express only by AHCC treatment, and the secretion of IL-8 of HT29 cells can be increased [27].
These effects in IEC18 cells are due to activation of NF-κB and part of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), mediated by TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88).
Daddaoua and colleagues conducted more detailed studies using THP-1 cell lines derived from monocytes, and showed that AHCC is mediated by NF-κB and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) to promote the secretion of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α [27].
These results suggest three possible roles for AHCC.
First, immune activation and anti-inflammatory effects of AHCC depend on cell type; second, immune enactivation or anti-inflammatory effects are determined by external stimuli such as cytokines or bacterial endotoxins; third, AHCC has both immune-stimulating and anti-inflammatory effects.
Further research in the future will help to better understand the role of AHCC.

Daddaoua et al. also analyzed the colonic flora of rats after AHCC injection [26].
Compared with TNBS-treated rats, AHCC-treated rats had more aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, but fewer Clostridium bacteria.
In addition, AHCC synergistically enhanced the symbiotic effect of B. longum BB 536 strain [28].
Bifidobacterium longum is a good bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract, and strain BB 536 is expected to promote health as a probiotics.
Rats were given AHCC (100 or 500mg /kg body weight) and Bifidobacterium longum strain BB 536 (5×10 6 CFU/ rat) 28 from 7 days before TNBS treatment to 7 days after TNBS treatment.
By using AHCC and BB 536 strains in colitis model rats, high anti-inflammatory activity was found in the intestinal tract, and TNBS treatment induced weight loss, intestinal weight/length ratio, changes in the expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and iNOS produced by neutrophils were inhibited.
In summary, these results suggest that AHCC can be used as a functional food (food ingredient that supports probiotic function) with a prebiotic effect. The combination of AHCC and bifidobacterium strain BB 536 (probiotics) shows the potential to inhibit intestinal inflammatory response in patients with IBD.

As another experimental model of ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis induced by T lymphocytes was also used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of AHCC.
Recombination activated gene 1 (Rag1) knockout mice (Rag1-/- mice) have defective mature B and T cells and an underdeveloped mucosal immune system [29].
Mascaraque et al transplanted CD4+ CD62L+ T cells, including juvenile T cells and central memory CD4+ cells, into Ragl-/- mice, causing chronic colitis similar to IBD [30].
RCC1-/- mice were then orally administered with AHCC (75mg/ day) for 12 consecutive days after T cell transplantation.
Primary culture lymphocytes were isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes treated with AHCC, and the MPO activity and alkaline phosphatase activity of cells were reduced after adding AHCC in culture medium, and the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly reduced [30].
These results suggest that AHCC has an anti-inflammatory effect in the gut and may help ameliorate the symptoms of T cell-induced ulcerative colitis.

Although the results of many animal experiments have been reported to date, no bioactive substances that reduce intestinal inflammation have been identified.
Further studies are needed to explain the anti-inflammatory role of AHCC in intestinal mucosal immunity.

Future Prospects

Many reports accumulated to date have shown that AHCC exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of cell types and immune-stimulating effects in certain cell lines (Figure 2).
In addition, AHCC has a prebiotic effect on intestinal flora.
These effects contribute to the use of AHCC as a functional food for the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases such as IBD.
In this sense, AHCC and its components can be used in complementary and alternative medicine.

In addition, it is necessary to elucidate the role of AHCC by identifying molecules other than adenosine that have pharmacological activity.
If such an active molecule is identified, its anti-inflammatory effect of inhibiting the expression of inflammation-related genes could be useful for the development of therapeutic drugs involved in chronic inflammatory disease.

Japan has reported the first case of the mutant novel coronavirus detected in the Philippines

A 60-year-old man who arrived at Narita Airport from the Philippines in February was infected with the novel coronavirus variant, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare said Wednesday.
Japanese media say the virus poses the same level of threat as mutated strains found in Britain, South Africa and Brazil.

This is the first reported case of the mutant novel coronavirus found in the Philippines in Japan, the health ministry said.
The man is asymptomatic.

Cancer cure black tech! Will polypeptides be the next “big variety”?

With the increasing difficulty of new drug research and development, the competition of biological drug research and development is becoming increasingly fierce. Peptide drugs, which are between small molecule chemical drugs, large molecule protein drugs and antibody drugs, balance the advantages of small molecule chemical drugs and large molecule protein drugs, with stable properties and easy production process control, have become the current research and development hotspot.

In recent years, the research and development of new peptide drugs has been in full swing, focusing on diabetes, cancer, peptide vaccine, eye disease and other fields, mainly in microspheres, oral, in situ gel and other dosage forms.
Not only that, the polypeptide can also be widely used in the field of cosmetics, for the anti-wrinkle, anti-aging, whitening and freckle of the skin and other aspects of remarkable effect.

The peptide industry in China is still in its infancy and growth stage, with huge development potential.
However, at present, nearly half of the peptide drug molecules listed in the world have not yet been listed in China, and the utilization rate of the top ten peptide molecular products in sales is relatively low in China.
In the face of this historic opportunity, Yao Zhi interview special interview Zhejiang Pai peptide biological co., LTD. Founder, director Liu Zhiguo, listen to the experts in the eyes of the “empire of polypeptide preparations”!

Liu Zhiguo, founder of Zhejiang Pai Peptide Biological Co. Ltd

Rapid expansion!
The global market for polypeptide drugs is booming

According to a 2013 report by the Global Peptide Therapy Foundation, over the past few decades, the number of peptide drugs entering clinical development has increased: from 9.7 per year in the 1990s to 19.5 per year between 2000 and 2010.
“It can be predicted that with the rapid development of molecular biology and biochemical synthesis technology, the development of peptide drugs will step up to a new level, and peptide products will become a major category of products in the international pharmaceutical market, and its market prospect can not be underestimated.”
Liu Zhiguo said.

“Peptide drugs are one of the promising research and development directions in the pharmaceutical industry, which may replace existing small molecule chemical drugs in the future.”
These include anti-infection, anti-tumor, physiological regulation and heart failure, he said.
At the same time, due to the fact that most of the polypeptide drugs have the characteristics of direct oral ineffective, short biological half-life and long treatment cycle, the secondary development of the existing polypeptide drugs is also a research and development direction with commercial value for the purpose of improving patient compliance.

Peptide drugs are a rapidly growing market for drugs.
At present, nearly 100 peptide products have been approved to market in the world. In 2016, the global market size of peptide drugs reached 23.3 billion US dollars, accounting for 2% of the pharmaceutical market share, with a 10-year compound growth rate of 10.80%.
In recent years, the compound growth rate of global peptide drug market is more than 12%, higher than the overall drug market, and it is expected to reach 31.7 billion US dollars by 2020, among which there are some large varieties of more than 1 billion US dollars, such as glatirelle, liraglutide and so on.
Therefore, although the overall scale of polypeptide drugs is still small, with the maturity of synthesis technology and the development of preparation technology, polypeptide drugs have a large space for development.

Black technology!
Peptides are effective in treating cancer

In recent years, great progress was made in tumor immunotherapy, also cannot leave the polypeptide drugs “merit”, activate anti-tumor immune peptides not only can be used as a tumor antigens, and can also be blocking immune checkpoints, can make reasonable use of the individual differences of tumor patients, explore potential targets in tumor tissues and microenvironment and mutation, thus developed as antineoplastic polypeptide drugs, to personalized cancer treatment, greatly improve the cure rate of cancer patients.

‘Neoantigens, for example, are a class of tumor specific antigens (TSAs) that are not present in normal tissues and organs.
It is an abnormal polypeptide produced during tumor formation due to viral infection, somatic mutation or gene rearrangement, and is delivered to the cell surface by MHC molecules to activate the immune system.
They can inhibit the development of tumors by promoting tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, and activating anti-tumor immune response.”

Liu ZhiGuo explained that polypeptide drugs for the treatment of advanced cancer patients, neoantigenic peptides can be automated synthesis, clinical activity has been proven, can exist in a variety of dosage forms to enhance delivery efficiency, instantaneous activity, can be completely degraded.

In addition, the polypeptide is also widely used in cosmetics, “we can be used in skin care products, cosmetic effect of small molecular peptide called beauty peptide, this kind of polypeptide non-toxic, highly active and easy to absorb, has special physiological activity, mainly used for skin whitening, spot, etc., in the aspects of the application effect is very good, cosmetics industry market scale growth above 25%.”

Market opportunities and current research and development difficulties

New dosage form and long – acting preparation of polypeptide medicine are the future development direction.
As peptide drugs is more for injection dosage forms, and dosing frequency is high, the patient’s compliance is poorer, based on the development of new dosage forms and long-term preparation, effectively extended polypeptide drugs in vivo half-life, bioavailability, in the treatment of many difficult diseases provides doctors with alternative treatments, so is beneficial for the promotion of peptide drugs.

At the same time, high-end preparations have certain technical barriers, compared with the common dosage form has a greater competitive advantage, polypeptide drug delivery technology has become the research and development of many pharmaceutical enterprises.

But peptide drug development itself is difficult, in terms of raw materials and preparation has high technical barriers, and manufacturer of products are patent protection, with a long cycle of generic drugs to declare, need enterprises increase investment in research and development, constantly improve the peptide synthesis technology and development capability, and avoid patents or a challenge, for products listed in advance.

At present, peptide drugs still face some challenges, such as synthesis technology, production process and product purity problems, resulting in product quality is not up to the requirements, or high cost factors, which limit the development of peptide drugs.
At the same time, it is not only necessary to find new polypeptide drugs, but also to find new dosage forms and drug delivery system, so that the polypeptide drugs can continue to maintain stability and activity in the body.

Strong itself, seize the international market

According to the data, the United States and five European countries are the most important market for peptide drugs, with a market share of more than 70%. For China’s peptide drugs, how to strengthen itself, with the help of foreign platforms, quickly conquer the international market, Liu Zhiguo put forward his own suggestions.

  1. Improve the technology of polypeptide synthesis.

In the synthesis process of API, peptide drugs need to overcome many technical problems, including peptide deficiency, racemic, etc., which can achieve the purpose of controlling the quality of API products, reducing the generation of impurities, and obtaining high purity polypeptide API.
At the same time, it is necessary to improve peptide synthesis technology to reduce the cost of peptide production, which can be reduced by reducing waste production, improving coupling efficiency and total yield.

  1. Improve the ability of international registration.

By improving the international registration capacity, peptide drugs can be declared in many countries, such as the United States, Europe, Japan, South Korea, etc., so as to accelerate the development of domestic peptide drugs into the international market.

  1. Encourage the development of innovative peptides.

Peptide itself has high activity, easy to chemical synthesis optimization, metabolic product safety, low immunogenicity, advantages, enterprises can be based on the forerunner polypeptide, varying degrees of modification and optimization, to further improve the physical and chemical properties and biological activity, has been a series of effective components, developed a more independent intellectual property rights innovation peptide drugs.

4, the introduction of foreign peptide talents, technology and equipment.

The introduction of high-level foreign peptide talents, such as from peptide companies, universities, new drug companies and other institutions of talent;
Introducing advanced technology and equipment of polypeptide, such as the technology related to slow and controlled release of high-end preparations;
Introduction of high quality peptide projects, such as peptide innovation drugs, etc.

Liu Zhiguo said that the peptide research and development enterprises continue to increase the investment in peptide project research and development, policy related departments to give more support in personnel, technology, equipment, policy, so as to improve the overall level of China’s peptide industry, promote domestic peptide drugs to the global market.

Analysis of antiviral drugs commonly used in pig farms: many of them are useless in fact. Pig breeders should not be cheated again

In pig farm, the real difficult to cure pig disease is usually viral disease. Because of the bacterial disease of pigs, antibiotics can be used, but there is no legal western medicine for swine virus disease. However, it can not be said that it is useless to treat swine virus disease with traditional Chinese medicine. However, the effect is how, in fact, the hearts of the farmers should be clear.
The truth is also very simple. Chinese medicine for the treatment of swine virus diseases, such as swine fever, blue ear and even Xiaofei, is the same as the treatment of new crown virus with products such as isatidis root and Shuanghuanglian. The effect may be available, but one is that there is no specific scientific argument; the second is that the effect can not be guaranteed. In addition, pig farm use of traditional Chinese medicine has actually been flooding, too many, drug resistance is also more serious.
At present, in the pig industry, when pigs meet some serious viral diseases, the core of treatment is to use antibiotics to prevent secondary infection, and then use Chinese medicine to kill horses and become a living horse doctor. This can also save some pigs’ lives. Many times manufacturers will boast that this is how powerful their traditional Chinese medicine is so that the casualty rate will be reduced. I don’t know if these Chinese medicines are not used, the results may not be too poor.
I believe in traditional Chinese medicine personally, but TCM is dialectical, that is, each individual is different, need to be different to apply drugs. Therefore, traditional Chinese medicine is actually an empirical study. But in the treatment of pig disease, there is no dialectical condition first. In addition, although pigs and humans are mammals, after all, there are many differences. The effectiveness of the traditional Chinese medicine directly used for pigs can not be promoted. Moreover, some traditional Chinese medicine used by animals may still be the residue left by the Chinese medicine factory, and the efficacy has been greatly reduced.
Western antiviral products are not allowed to be used, and it is illegal to use them. The antiviral effect of traditional Chinese medicine is difficult to guarantee. Pig breeders and veterinary medicine manufacturers are in a hurry: is there any solution? At present, the industry is better used for antiviral alternatives: glucoterpene, glycerin monolaurate, oligosaccharide, etc. First, they are formal and legal, and then they are new products, and there are no problems existing in traditional Chinese medicine. Different manufacturers also launch more products, currently more common in the market: Qingwen Taibao, blue circle not too much protection. Of course, most of these products are complex products that cooperate with traditional Chinese medicine, and the effect is to make up for the advantages and disadvantages. The feedback effect of the farmers in the practical application process is good and the reputation is good.

Vaccines don’t work at all! U.S. mutated virus upgrades

Recently, a new variant virus has been discovered in California, which makes American scientists afraid. According to the report of reference news network, according to the research on the variant strain, this variant strain has more obvious transmissibility than the previously found variant strain. It is worth noting that the U.S. mutant virus has been completely upgraded, and the vaccine may not be used at all for the improvement of vaccine resistance.
Characteristics of new mutation virus in USA
The research shows that the mutant virus appeared very early, but was found very late. It was only found in winter. Because winter makes the transmission of the virus enhanced, the corresponding cases of natural increase in infection, the mutation of the virus caused attention. At the time of initial discovery, there was no clear evidence to prove that the mutant virus might have stronger transmissibility.
However, after several months of development, the danger of the virus is gradually emerging, and its serious infectivity is also gradually reflected. In just one quarter, with the corresponding strengthening of epidemic prevention and control in the United States, the mutant virus has become the main mutant virus in California. This result makes the researchers concerned, through the research and analysis of the mutant virus, the researchers found that the mutant virus has stronger infectivity.
Risk of mutated virus
After comparing with the mutated viruses in Brazil and South Africa, virus experts exclaimed that the devil had come. The stronger adaptability of the mutated virus makes it more effective to evade the vaccine, and the effect of the vaccine will naturally decline or even disappear. In addition, the mutant virus may have a better “binding” function with human cells, in other words, it has a more efficient infection rate. The reason why the mutant virus is called the devil is that if this characteristic of the virus is contacted and fused, it is very likely to form a new virus that is more dangerous than the mutant virus.
Epidemic prevention and control cannot be relaxed
The new mutation virus found in the United States has brought new challenges to the epidemic prevention and control, and whether the vaccine can play a role has aroused concern again. This further reminds people that they should be more active in fighting against the epidemic and should not relax the relevant epidemic prevention measures. This kind of mutant virus also has the risk of infection to people who have been infected with the epidemic situation and produced antibodies. In addition, according to experts, if this kind of virus is widely spread, the effect of the vaccine will be lower and lower, and finally even invalid.
U.S. researchers say the virus may lead the U.S. into another wave of outbreaks. In the current situation that the epidemic situation in the United States is not under control, the virus will bring greater difficulty to the prevention and control of the epidemic situation in the United States. This will also have an impact on Biden’s epidemic prevention and control plan. Whether the United States can control the epidemic in the summer is even more uncertain. Before the end of the epidemic, wear masks, keep personal hygiene clean, still can’t relax.

People of this blood type should be careful! Experts have confirmed: particularly vulnerable to virus infection

As researchers around the world work to identify and address risk factors for individuals with severe new crowns, they have found evidence that certain blood types may be associated with an increased risk of the disease. This study shows that the new coronavirus is particularly attracted by the type a blood antigen found in respiratory cells.
In this study, the researchers evaluated a protein on the surface of the new coronavirus called receptor binding domain, or RBD. RBD is a part of the virus binding with host cells, which makes it an important research target to understand how infection occurs. The team evaluated synthetic blood group antigens on type A, B and O red blood cells and individual respiratory tract cells, and analyzed how the RBD of the new coronavirus interacts with each unique blood group.
They found that RBD had a strong preference for binding type a blood in respiratory cells. This is probably how the virus enters most patients and infects them.
Although we can’t change the blood type, the researchers said. But if we can better understand how the virus interacts with people’s blood groups, we may be able to find new drugs or preventive methods.

The source of the virus was found? American expert: the virus spread from them to the world!

The source of the virus was found?
American expert: the virus spread from them to the world!
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As of March 3, the world will be coronavirus infection is still very difficult, the United States as the first big outbreak, total 29.37 million cases of confirmed cases, accumulative total deaths of nearly 530000, to make matters worse, at the same time, the mutant viruses also swept by, although for now, the United States in a single new cases has decreased, but health experts say, this does not mean that the United States has successful escape, only strengthening ego to protect consciousness, people will be wearing a mask and keep a safe distance view as a habit, is likely to contain the spread of the virus, in addition, the vaccine promotion is urgent,
After all, the only thing that protects against the virus is the COVID-19 vaccine!

In addition to the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France and other countries are also infected, even in Asia, Japan, South Korea is not optimistic about the situation, so where is the virus sweeping the world from?
Pompeo, known as the “public enemy of mankind”, did everything he could to smear China. He even claimed that the Wuhan Virus Laboratory had created and spread the virus. It was not until a WHO expert team came to China to investigate that the truth finally came to light!

Hill shortly before an Indian experts reveal the secrets of fort detrick, biological laboratories, the original will be coronavirus even the laboratory synthetic products, and at that time, the international community, many countries want the who travel to the United States, however, America’s defence secretary, to prevent the who came and openly will large Numbers of troops deployed around the laboratory, harms the cover-up to fort detrick, biological laboratories, experts at a time when the United States a fact make public outcry again…

It is learned that the experts foreign exposes the spread of the virus worldwide truth, had held a conference in Boston in the United States, the meeting is more than 200 experts from around the world, due to the seal, meeting place and the participants did not wear masks, 200 experts after the meeting became spreaders, will will be coronavirus spread to all over the world, that is to say, the meeting in Boston is led to the fall of the world’s other, and the Chinese side has always been wronged.

With the continuous progress of tracing the source, it is obviously impossible for the United States to continue to conceal the facts. However, some American officials who are not dead in their conscience have been selectively blind and insist on pinning the blame on us. This despicable method is disgusting!
In fact, novel coronavirus appeared and spread the truth has been revealed, the next world health must personally come forward to thoroughly investigate the United States, the global public need an explanation, and the United States as the biggest suspect must unconditionally cooperate with the world health investigation, this is beyond doubt!