Ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, is often used in orthopedic patients with low back and leg pain

Time: early 21st century
Setting: Department of orthopedics, XX Hospital
Characters: an orthopedic doctor and his dear patient
Scene one: pain relief without addiction
“…” (the previous text is abbreviated, which is supplemented by the officials themselves)
“In this way, I’ll give you some ibuprofen. This medicine can relieve knee pain, and the effect is quite obvious.”
“Wait a minute, doctor. What’s this, ibuprofen, a painkiller?”
“Yes, what’s the matter?”
“Won’t you be addicted to this medicine?”
“No, what are you talking about?”
“Isn’t this the same kind of drug as morphine or codeine?”
“Why? It’s a big difference. “
“Aha? What’s the difference between them? “
“Don’t worry, just listen to me…”
The doctor said:
Opioids
Morphine and codeine are opioids. This kind of medicine has excellent analgesic effect, but also can calm, antitussive, antidiarrheal, has high clinical application value in medicine, but generally only used to relieve severe pain such as cancer pain, as well as stubborn severe cough.
Because of its excessive use, it will produce acute poisoning, such as coma, needle pupil, cyanosis, shallow breathing, and decreased blood pressure (naloxone for rescue); Withdrawal reaction is easy to occur when drug withdrawal; And there will be constipation and other adverse reactions, which are listed as controlled drugs. Most importantly, because of its strong addiction, it is often prohibitive.
Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Ibuprofen, also known as Fenbid, ibuprofen and so on, is a more commonly used non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Ibuprofen also has analgesic effect, but the analgesic effect is relatively weak, but at the same time, because of its non addiction, low toxicity, less side effects, it is widely used in the treatment of headache, toothache, joint muscle pain, dysmenorrhea and other chronic pain; Because of its convenient, safe and effective use, it can be used as an analgesic for children’s burns; In addition, ibuprofen can effectively relieve the pain caused by anal surgery. In addition to ibuprofen, common NSAIDs include aspirin, paracetamol, diclofenac, indomethacin, rofecoxib, celecoxib, etc. Another popular science, ibuprofen is an OTC drug (over-the-counter drug). Patients can buy ibuprofen by themselves in pharmacies, which is enough to see that ibuprofen is safe and convenient.
You must ask, what is NSAID? This steroid is a kind of chemical structure. Here, it looks like this——
To tell you simply and rudely, it is composed of four rings (three benzene rings + one pentane ring) and three bars on the head. The overall shape is especially like the word “steroid”, so this structure is called “steroid”. It doesn’t matter if you don’t quite understand it. Just know about it.
Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainly different from anti-inflammatory drugs with steroidal structure, that is, steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are mainly steroid drugs, among which glucocorticoids are the most common. Glucocorticoid is a kind of adrenocortical hormone, which is secreted by the columnar cells in the middle layer of adrenal gland. It can inhibit the expansion of blood vessels, reduce edema and play an anti-inflammatory role.
Glucocorticoids used in clinic include natural products and synthetic drugs. The common ones are short acting cortisone and hydrocortisone, medium acting prednisone and prednisolone, and long acting dexamethasone and betamethasone.
These drugs can inhibit the thermoregulatory center, and can play a better antipyretic effect. This kind of medicine can also be used to relieve pain, but it has less effect and is not its main function.
Doctors generally don’t prescribe glucocorticoid drugs easily, because long-term use of such drugs will inevitably produce more side effects, such as: 1) destruction of lymphocytes, so that the human body’s immunity is reduced; ② It leads to the disorder of fat metabolism and the appearance of “centripetal obesity”, that is, “full moon face, buffalo back”; ③ Promote gluconeogenesis, promote glycogen decomposition, inhibit glycogen synthesis and increase blood glucose; ④ Promoting gluconeogenesis, that is, transforming non sugar substances into sugars, including proteins. Due to promoting the decomposition of proteins, long-term use of these drugs will inhibit wound healing.
To sum up, the most suitable analgesic is non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which can relieve pain without addiction and has less side effects.
Scene 2: pain relief, but not just pain relief
(the following dialogue continues)
“Oh, I see. But, doctor, this ibuprofen can only relieve pain, only treat the symptoms but not the root cause. It has no therapeutic effect. Is it really worth using it? “
“It seems that you have fallen into another misunderstanding. Ibuprofen is a commonly used analgesic, in people’s subconscious, its role is simple pain. But listen, ibuprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, so… “
“So it’s also anti-inflammatory!”
“You’re right this time.”
Anti inflammatory
Ibuprofen, since it is called non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, then this kind of drugs must have a very important function, that is anti-inflammatory. Prostaglandins are important inflammatory factors. The release of prostaglandins can cause tissue congestion and edema. The release of prostaglandins is inseparable from cyclooxygenase, and ibuprofen plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting cyclooxygenase and reducing the synthesis of prostaglandins.
Relieving fever
Ibuprofen can also inhibit the production of prostaglandin E in hypothalamus and stimulate the production of endogenous “cryogen” in human body, so it also has antipyretic effect. Bloven is often used for have a fever caused by common cold or influenza. Ibuprofen is the first choice for the treatment of fever in children because of its low side effects and safety.
Anti rheumatism
Ibuprofen can also treat the pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, and has good effect in the treatment of low back and leg pain, cervical spondylosis and shoulder pain. This effect also has high clinical significance in orthopedics. However, it should be noted that ibuprofen is not effective in the treatment of pain caused by nerve compression.
In conclusion, the clinical application value of ibuprofen includes antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti rheumatic.
Scene 3 pain relief but not abuse
(Continued)
“Ah! This ibuprofen is really a good medicine. I have to prepare more
“Don’t mention it. I haven’t finished yet. Humanitarianism is: it’s a drug with three poisons. This ibuprofen is good, but if you abuse it indiscriminately, the side effects will be enough for you. “
“Oh, I’m not thoughtful again. I’d like to hear more about it.”
As a whole, ibuprofen has less side effects, but there are still some adverse reactions to a certain extent.
① Digestive tract: peptic ulcer, gastritis, diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, etc( Use with caution for patients with poor gastrointestinal function)
② Skin: nonspecific rash, urticaria, pruritus, bullous rash, etc.
③ Central nervous system: dizziness, headache, insomnia, vertigo, severe can appear coma.
Cardiovascular system: induce water and sodium retention, aggravate heart failure, and cause tachycardia. * Caution for patients with heart disease)
⑤ Respiratory system: can cause asthma.
Metabolism can alter glucose metabolism, induce or aggravate diabetes.
Note: ibuprofen should be used with caution in patients with the above basic diseases.
This article focuses on people’s concerns about the use of ibuprofen and other painkillers, and explains that ibuprofen is not addictive. In addition to the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs belonging to ibuprofen, the other two kinds of related drugs are analyzed and explained to readers. A large part of ibuprofen’s role is to relieve pain, but in addition to pain, it can also relieve fever, anti-inflammatory, anti rheumatism, clinical application is more extensive. Although ibuprofen is convenient and safe to use, we should be alert to its possible side effects.

Improve the effect of cancer vaccine through bacterial plasma membrane to prevent tumor recurrence

Cancer, one of the biggest nightmare in the history of human diseases, is also known as the king of diseases because of its complexity and incurable nature. Even in today’s highly developed medical technology, when it comes to cancer, it is always natural to associate it with death, especially advanced cancer.
In recent years, the emergence of cancer immunotherapy has completely changed the current pattern of cancer treatment. However, the immunocheckpoint blocking therapy has not been effective for most cancers, and car-t cell therapy has not been able to overcome solid tumors. Therefore, for solid tumor patients, surgery is still the first treatment, but many patients will still have tumor recurrence and metastasis after operation.
The recurrence and metastasis of tumor after operation are closely related to the anti-tumor immune state of the body. Therefore, cancer vaccine has become a promising treatment method for tumor resection patients. However, because the tumor tissue is often not very immunogenic, this limits the efficacy of cancer vaccine. It is a promising strategy to overcome this limitation to use bacterial components as adjuvant to enhance immunogenicity. However, this nonspecific stimulation of the immune system may cause adverse reactions.
Recently, researcher Nie Guangjun and researcher Wu Yan of national Nano Science Center, in cooperation with Academician zhaoyuliang, published a research paper entitled “scientific cytolasmic MEMS synergy enhancement the anti activity of automatic cancer success” in the journal Science Translation medicine, Important progress has been made in the design of personalized nano tumor vaccine.
The team creatively integrated the plasma membrane of E.coli cells and the tumor cell membrane into nanoparticles, and developed a new personalized cancer vaccine. The experimental results showed that after the tumor resection, these hybrid membrane nanoparticles induced strong tumor specific immunity response and improved the survival rate of mice, It can protect mice from tumor attack again for a long time.
Moreover, no side effects such as over stimulation of immune system caused by bacterial cell wall pollution were found. The results show that the personalized autotumor antigen vaccine based on the bacterial membrane can activate the innate immune system effectively, which has great potential in personalized treatment of patients after cancer surgery.
Cancer vaccine is to induce the immune response of the body to kill tumor cells. Because of the systemic and systemic characteristics of the immune response, this therapy can not only kill the tumor lesions remaining after operation, but also can effectively act on the cells transferred from the far end, and the range of action is more specific and extensive than other treatment methods.
According to the cell structure of tumor cells and bacteria, the team skillfully used nanotechnology to display the tumor cell membrane containing tumor antigen information and bacterial intima containing adjuvant information on the surface of polymer nanoparticles to prepare personalized hybrid membrane nano tumor vaccine.
In order to trigger enough anti-tumor response specifically without significant side effects, the team presented tumor cell membrane (TM) containing tumor antigen information and E.coli cell membrane (EM) containing adjuvant information on the surface of polymer nanoparticles, and developed co delivery nanoparticles vaccine based on antigen and adjuvant.
As an external adjuvant, the bacterial membrane component in the co delivery nanoparticles vaccine can be recognized by the immune system rapidly, which makes nanoparticles absorbed by dendritic cells, and thus improves the delivery and presentation efficiency of tumor antigens.
Next, the team tested the efficacy of the vaccine in a mouse model of colorectal cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. The results showed that the vaccine could induce strong specific anti-tumor immune response, effectively inhibit tumor recurrence, and even effectively induce tumor regression and prolong survival time.
More importantly, the vaccine can effectively induce the production of CD8 + T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and prevent tumor invasion again.
In general, the study shows that the personalized autotumor antigen vaccine based on the bacterial membrane can activate the innate immune system effectively, which has great potential in personalized treatment of patients after cancer surgery.
The preparation process and mechanism of hybrid membrane nanotumor vaccine
Chen long, Qin Hao and Zhao Ruifang, the National Center for nanotechnology, are co authors of the article. The co authors of the article are deputy researcher zhaoruifang, researcher Wuyan, academician zhaoyuliang and researcher Nie Guangjun.

Diabetes is a new cause of death, with cancer leading the way, and people who are overweight or obese are at greater risk

What is the ultimate outcome of poor diabetes control? What is the chief cause of death?

I believe most people will say that the biggest harm of diabetes is to cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which is also the first cause of death of diabetic people.

However, according to the latest Lancet report published in 2021, cancer has become the number one cause of death among diabetics in the UK and other countries, and this is a major trend in the future.

The cause is closely related to the disorders and disorders of the most basic glucose and lipid metabolism of the body. All tissues and organs not only cannot normally complete their physiological activities, but also will be damaged and mutated, eventually leading to the occurrence of cancer. One of the most obvious and damaging factors is being exposed to high levels of insulin.

People with diabetes may wonder: isn’t diabetes caused by insufficient insulin production? Why is there such a thing as high insulin?

Little imagine, almost all people with diabetes have insulin resistance phenomenon, simply is the normal insulin cannot enter cells play a role stranded in the blood, even if insufficient insulin secretion, also makes the body high insulin levels, the performance of the most common is a person with diabetes are overweight, obesity, especially big the centrality of belly fat.

Studies have confirmed that: thyroid, ovarian, breast, bladder, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and other cancers are closely related to diabetes mellitus; It also leads to a less effective treatment of cancer and a worse prognosis than the average person’s cancer.

Therefore, for people with diabetes, we should not only prevent and delay the occurrence of complications such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, uremia, renal failure and blindness, but also pay attention to the prevention and treatment of cancer, so as to achieve prevention first, early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment.

So, how to do cancer prevention?

The most effective measure is to control blood glucose, especially postprandial blood glucose. Only good blood glucose control can improve the level of islet in the body. We should know that the mechanism of insulin secretion in the body is initiated and regulated by the level of blood sugar. According to a 2015 study published in Obesity and Metabolism, a 60 percent increase in blood sugar after a meal was associated with a 500 percent rise in insulin levels. Therefore, only by keeping blood sugar at a low level can insulin secretion make the best use of its resources and avoid the occurrence of high insulin.

Since blood glucose, especially postprandial blood glucose, mainly comes from three meals a day, and carbohydrates in the three meals are the most important, it is the most direct and effective measure to strictly control the total intake of carbohydrates throughout the day. At present, the Mediterranean diet, Shu diet, that is, on the basis of strict control and as far as possible to reduce the carbohydrate food, through the increase of high quality protein, fresh fruits and vegetables to ensure that the body to obtain enough calories.

Moreover, more and more practice has proved that strict restriction of carbohydrate also plays an important role in preventing and treating various complications of diabetes. People with diabetes should follow this principle to gradually reduce the amount of carbohydrates-rich food, some experts put forward to achieve a daily carbohydrate intake of no more than 50 grams, of course, while paying attention to protein, fat and other intake.

In short, no matter from the basic treatment of diabetes or the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications including cancer, good control of blood sugar is the most basic requirement. People with diabetes must not take it lightly, especially those who are overweight or obese, should take prevention as early as possible, with the first goal of losing weight as soon as possible.

Have eczema, rhinitis or the child of asthma, still can eat high send sensitive sex food?

When preparing to add complementary foods to children, or add a food that is not eaten, many parents will think of a question: Will the child eat food allergies?

There are grounds for concern. Especially when the child has a history of eczema, rhinitis and so on, every time to add food is careful, see the food containing protein on tenterbones, but sometimes because of nutritional needs and have to eat. What to do in this case? Today we’re going to talk about how to add foods to children that may be at risk for allergies.

No.1

What foods are highly allergenic?

Although allergies can be caused by any food, the eight most common food groups, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, peanuts, wood nuts, fish and shellfish, are classified as highly allergenic.

No.2

Which children are at high risk?

Answering this question requires understanding what an allergic disease is. The most common allergic diseases include atopic dermatitis (eczema), allergic rhinitis, asthma, and food allergies.

Infants and young children are at higher risk of allergic disease if there is a family member with allergic disease. If the child already has an allergic disease, the risk of developing other types of allergic diseases is increased.

To put it simply, infants and young children with a family and personal history of allergic diseases belong to the “high risk group of allergies”; Children with no history of the disease fell into the “standard or low-risk group.”

No.3

Should the addition of highly allergenic foods be postponed?

In 2000 the American academy of pediatrics recommended delaying the introduction of highly allergenic foods. For example, for high-risk groups, milk at age 1; Add eggs at age 2; Peanuts, wood nuts and fish were added at age 3. The recommendation is based on several studies from the late 20th century that suggested that delaying the addition of certain foods might reduce the probability of allergies.

But in 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics revised its guidelines after more and more in-depth studies came to very different conclusions:

Delaying the addition of highly allergenic foods may not reduce the risk of allergy, but may increase it. Conversely, adding certain foods early on May reduce the risk of allergies to those foods.

The researchers now agree that for “standard or low” risk children, high-allergenic foods can be introduced at any time after 4 to 6 months of age when supplemental foods are added, regardless of age (i.e., 8 months of age is not required for egg yolk consumption). For infants at high risk of allergy, the addition of complementary foods should not be postponed. Highly allergenic solid foods can also be added with caution, but it is recommended to consult an allergist first.

Although milk, eggs, soy, peanuts, wheat, nuts, fish, and shellfish are all allowed to be introduced under the age of 1, the following should be noted:

  1. Soybeans, peanuts, nuts and other foods should be processed into appropriate traits to avoid asphyxiation. For example, processing peanuts into peanut butter.
  2. Liquid whole milk should be avoided in infants under 1 year of age, not because of allergies, but because it can overload the kidneys and increase the risk of iron deficiency. But don’t limit your intake of milk formula and other dairy products, such as baked goods, cheese, and yogurt, until age 1.
  3. It is also generally not recommended to replace breast milk or formula feeding with plant-based milk (e.g., soy milk, walnut milk, almond milk, rice milk, etc.) as it is low in protein and fat and does not meet the nutritional needs of infants.

Non-breast-fed infants who are allergic to cow’s milk protein should consult a dietitian before choosing soy formula if they cannot be relieved by hydrolyzed formula or amino acid formula.

No.4

Before adding highly allergenic foods,

Is an allergy assessment necessary for the child?

Usually not, unless the child meets one of two conditions:

  1. The child has a history of severe food allergy;
  2. Intractable moderate to severe eczema still exists in the child after the best treatment.

It is advisable for these symptomatic high-risk children to be evaluated by an allergist before adding a highly allergenic food, including a detailed medical history and possibly serum allergen testing and/or skin prick testing.

Most children do not fit into either of these categories and do not require allergy testing before adding highly allergenic foods.

No.5

How to add highly allergenic food?

For all children, when adding highly allergenic foods, it is necessary to follow the principle of adding complementary foods, adding only one new food at a time, starting from a small amount, and observing each new food for 3-5 days.

For “standard or low” risk groups, highly allergenic foods can be introduced at any time after the planned introduction of complementary foods.

For children at high risk, it is more prudent to add highly allergenic foods:

  1. Children who have had severe allergic reactions in the past or who still have refractory moderate to severe eczema after treatment should be introduced with highly allergenic foods under the evaluation and guidance of an allergist.
  2. If this is not the case, after tolerating some of the less allergenic side foods (such as ferric rice noodles, pureed vegetables), you can initially try these foods at home (rather than in a restaurant or nursery), along with oral antihistamines. If no significant allergic reaction is observed, increase the amount of the food gradually.

No.6

Is it safer to add fewer highly allergenic foods?

It is not recommended to “avoid” these hyperallergenic foods without clinical evidence to limit the variety of foods.

Because protein is diverse and comes from a wide variety of sources, nutrition will be more balanced. Moreover, limiting the variety of complementary foods before age 1 also increases the risk of allergies. If you do not care, you can refer to the following for treatment.

How does skin inflammation do?

1、 Overview of skin inflammation
Inflammation is what people usually call “inflammation”. It is a kind of defense response of the body to stimulation. It is manifested as redness, swelling, heat, pain and dysfunction. Inflammation can be infectious inflammation caused by infection or non infectious inflammation caused by infection. Skin inflammation is a defense or stress response of the human body to all external stimuli. The external stimulus that causes this defense / stress response is called proinflammatory factor.
2、 The skin is inflamed

  1. Acne is the direct manifestation of inflammation, if there is no timely anti-inflammatory, even if the acne is good, it is easy to leave acne imprint.
  2. Skin becomes fragile and sensitive, often red, tingling, itching, burning and other symptoms.
  3. Accelerate skin aging.
  4. The skin turns black.
    3、 Summary of methods to resist skin inflammation
  5. Try to avoid skin irritation caused by various factors in the external environment
    Ultraviolet rays in the sun, dust particles in the air and pollen may cause skin irritation and inflammation. Therefore, when going out, we must take protective measures. On the basis of applying sunscreen and isolation, we should always have sunshade, sunshade cap, mouth mask, sunglasses, ice sleeves and other protective tools to prevent skin irritation caused by various external environments.
  6. Strive to strengthen skin’s tolerance and defense
    The most important way of anti-inflammatory is to improve the body’s immunity. Daily we should adhere to exercise, and speed up the metabolism through exercise, pay attention to water after exercise.
  7. Anti inflammatory and stability maintenance with skin care products
    When inflammation occurs, skin care procedures should be simplified, and daily essence and makeup water can only be used. The essence is concentrated skin care products, which can nourish the skin, relieve inflammation and strengthen the skin.
  8. Pay attention to anti inflammation in daily diet
    (1) Diet should pay attention to the balance of fatty acids, fatty acid content of high food: deep sea fish and fish oil.
    (2) Use anti-inflammatory spices: ginger, cinnamon, garlic, black pepper, green tea.
    (3) Stay away from foods that cause inflammation. Inflammatory foods are foods that are high in fat and sugar.
    (4) Polyphenol antioxidants food: dark vegetables are rich in antioxidants, broccoli, tomato, spinach and so on.
    (5) Probiotics: fermented food is rich in probiotics, apple vinegar, yogurt, etc.
    (6) Eating cereals and cereals: can help balance postprandial blood glucose levels.

Elevated carcinoembryonic antigen, is it cancer?

For two weeks, Chen had not had a good night’s sleep and had been tormented by the word “tumor” in his mind.

Two weeks ago, the unit’s physical examination showed that the tumor markers CEA and CA199 were both elevated, which frightened Chen. “The elevated tumor markers, does that mean the body has a tumor?”

In addition, during those days, Chen did not feel well, his stomach would ache from time to time, and he did not eat properly because of his busy work.

After finishing the work, Chen hurried to the outpatient department of the hospital for consultation, but the doctor comforted her: “Don’t scare yourself young people first, the tumor markers are not necessarily cancer, but also need further examination, I suggest you do a gastroscopy first.”

At the doctor’s suggestion, Chen underwent gastroscopy, and the results showed that there were indeed several polyps in his stomach, but no tumor was found. The polyps were also removed under the microscope at the moment, and only follow-up observation was needed, and there was no serious problem.
Chen was relieved, but at the same time, she wondered: Why pay for a test when tumor markers can’t diagnose cancer?
Check out the result is wrong, is not oneself frighten oneself?

  1. What are tumor markers?

Tumor marker (TM) is a kind of substance synthesized by tumor cells or raised in response to tumor cells. Its components mainly include proteins and sugars.
Tumor markers are widely found in cells, tissues, blood or body fluids. They are some indexes of the human body, which can be detected by biochemical and immunological methods, and can reflect the occurrence and development of tumors, or monitor the response of tumors to treatment.

Many people think they have cancer when their tumor markers are elevated during a physical examination, but in fact, there is no tumor marker that can definitively diagnose or rule out a tumor.
For example, in the case of Xiao Chen, her CEA and CA199 were both elevated, but it was not because of cancer, but because of a polyp growing in her stomach.

In fact, in addition to cancer, elevated levels of CEA, or serum carcinoembryonic antigen, can be caused by smoking, ulcerative colitis, pancreatitis, colon polyps, active liver disease, and other conditions.
Although the carbohydrate antigen CA199 is suitable for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, the value of CA199 may also be increased due to benign diseases such as acute pancreatitis, biliary stone, cholangitis and non-cancerous liver diseases.

Therefore, it is a great error to judge whether one has cancer simply by increasing the value of tumor markers, and other examination means are needed to be combined for diagnosis.

So, one might ask, why pay for a test when you can’t diagnose cancer?
Isn’t it a waste of money?
In fact, although tumor markers cannot diagnose cancer, they are still an important physical examination item. This is mainly because the clinical testing of tumor markers can be used in the following three ways:

  1. It can be used for general examination and screening of tumors to assist in judging whether there is a tumor.
    Early detection and early treatment are the basic principles of tumor treatment.
    Tumor markers are important clues to finding tumors in people at high risk of cancer.
    If the data is abnormal, patients can do other tests according to the actual situation in time to help detect early tumors, timely treatment, and improve the survival rate;
  2. After surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for cancer patients, the therapeutic effect can be monitored by tumor markers.
    In general, if the tumor is completely removed and the treatment is good, the number of tumor markers goes down.
  3. Dynamic monitoring of tumor markers is helpful to determine whether the tumor has recurred and determine the next treatment plan;
    In addition, the increase or decrease of tumor marker concentration is closely related to tumor prognosis.

Third, the tumor markers corresponding to common cancers should be vigilant when the value is abnormally high

Generally speaking, the tumor markers that are tested by drawing blood in hospitals are mainly for liver cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and so on.
If abnormal values of the following tumor markers are found, the alert should be raised:

1, liver

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is mainly used in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer, but increased AFP can also be caused by hepatitis, cirrhosis, and pregnancy.
If AFP is more than 400ng/mL and lasts for 4 weeks, pay attention.
If the AFP value is 200~400ng/mL for 8 weeks, it is a relatively dangerous situation, which needs to be further examined in combination with imaging to determine whether the patient has liver cancer.

2, lung cancer,

Cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) is commonly used to detect lung cancer.
When CYFRA21-1 & gt;
When 30ng/ml, be alert to lung cancer.
In general, the positive detection rate of non-small cell lung cancer is 70%~85%, and the positive rate of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for the diagnosis of lung cancer is about 50%.
In addition, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) may assist in the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer.

Prostate cancer

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is used to diagnose prostate cancer.
If found PSA>
At 10ng/mL, the risk of prostate cancer is increased and further tests should be done as soon as possible.

  1. Colorectal cancer

If the CEA exceeds 20ug/L, it is often indicative of a digestive tract tumor.
In addition, CA199, CA724 and CA242 make up for the deficiency of CEA to a certain extent.

  1. Ovarian cancer

Glycosylated antigen 125 (CA125) is used to diagnose ovarian cancer.
If discover the CA125 & gt;
35U/mL, there may be ovarian malignant tumor;
However, when CA125 exceeds >;
70U/mL, it is highly suspected to be due to malignant tumor.

  1. Breast cancer

The value of CA15-3 increased, and the sensitivity for early breast cancer was 60%, and the sensitivity for late breast cancer was 80%.
In addition, CEA, CA125 and other tumor markers are complementary indicators for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

Four, in life, in addition to the physical examination, we should also pay attention to the abnormal signals sent by the body

In recent years, the incidence of cancer in China is still on the rise.
Cancer has an incubation period of 10 to 20 years and is not easily detected in its early stages.
In daily life, in addition to regular physical examination, we should also pay attention to abnormal signals sent by the body, such as:

  1. Mass appears on the body surface and increases rapidly in a short period of time;

2, warts and moles rapidly increase or rupture;

  1. Weight loss for no reason or long-term unexplained fever;

4, often appear nasal obstruction, nasal suction back blood;

5, feel chest discomfort when swallowing, swallowing difficulty or a sense of choking.

6, persistent cough, sputum with blood;

  1. Prolonged ulcer or persistent digestive abnormality;

8, urine and feces habits change, blood in urine, blood in stool;

  1. Irregular vaginal bleeding occurs in women after the end of menstruation or menopause;
  2. Persistent headache, blurred vision and so on.

Five, want to diagnose cancer, still have to carry out what kind of test?

There is no inevitable relationship between tumor markers and cancer. If the value of tumor markers is found to be elevated, other tests, such as ultrasound examination, nuclear magnetic resonance examination and pathological examination, should be performed according to the actual situation in order to diagnose cancer.

As mentioned above, the most important marker for primary liver cancer is AFP.
When the AFP value increases, in order to determine whether there is cancer, ultrasound B-ultrasound examination can be performed to see if there is any tumor, and to check the size and growth site of the tumor.
Second, an MRI examination can be performed to determine the primary lesion.
In addition, if a tumor is found, a biopsy is performed to determine whether the tumor is benign or malignant.

For cancer such as lung cancer, stomach cancer and cervical cancer, chest radiographs, gastroenteroscopy, gynecological examinations and Pap scrapes are required respectively.

Finally, remember the cancer associated with the various tumor markers.
Don’t scare yourself if you find an abnormal number of tumor markers on your checkup.
Generally speaking, people at high risk of cancer, such as those with a family history of cancer, are at higher risk of cancer and need to identify cancer through methods such as ultrasound.
Ordinary people talk to their doctor, and then decide whether to do other tests based on the actual situation.

Parasitic arthritis is an endemic disease

Introduction: parasitic arthritis is a local disease in developed countries and many developing countries. The clinical manifestations are different. After infection with parasites, some patients have no symptoms, others have many clinical manifestations. The allergic symptoms of the disease include pain, lumps, inflammation of the ear, and arthritis.
Parasite arthritis is a local disease that can cause skeletal deformity

  1. This disease is a local disease
    This disease is a local disease, and the patient was not obviously at the beginning. Plasmodium induced arthritis and osteoarthritis are not common in clinic.
  2. Can cause bone lesions
    It can cause damage to bone tissue, joints and bone marrow, hinder the normal development of bones, or cause fetal bone deformity. Infection of parasitic bacteria can cause joint damage. Arthritis can be caused by parasites living in muscles around the joint, or by parasites’ metabolites or immune responses.
  3. Etiology
    Osteoarthritis caused by parasite infection is very rare in clinic. So far, at least 20 parasites can directly or indirectly destroy human bones and joint systems. It can cause damage to bone tissue, joints and bone marrow, and can also hinder the normal development of bones.
    02
    Parasitic arthritis, in the incubation period, may be asymptomatic for a long time, and may have pain in the limited period
    The disease is divided into four types clinically. Osteococcosis is a disease that causes the disease of small echinococcosis by parasitism of the cercariae in the bone, and its symptoms are painless swelling. The disease is slow, and it is often seen in children.
  4. Incubation period
    Larva grows slowly in bone, and has no symptoms for a long time. A few cases may have slight pain.
  5. Limitation period
    When the condition worsens, pain, numbness, limp, muscle atrophy of the limbs will occur.
  6. Lymphadenopathy can be caused by infection
    Osteoarthritis may occur because of filariasis or Malay. Filariasis can cause lymph nodes to swell. Because of the decrease of resistance, bacteria are easy to invade, causing bacterial infection in local tissues, which may cause peritonitis or peritonitis. In addition, chyloarthritis is also a common disease of filariasis, which can be seen in chylous fluid at the joint, and is common in knee joint.
  7. Patients will have limited activity, swelling, pain and fever
    The second is the ankle, which is not affected. It is often unilateral. Generally speaking, it is a benign process, with short duration and no pain and swelling of joints. Sometimes acute, knee joint fluid infiltration, swelling, pain, fever, limited activity, high fever. It can be relieved in 1-2 weeks, and it can be turned into chronic arthritis after recurrence.
    The allergic symptoms of the disease include pain, lumps, inflammation of the ear, arthritis. Among these diseases, osteoarthritis is the most common disease, that is, single joint, especially exposed joints such as wrist and ankle, but pubic Union and rib may occur simultaneously. The symptoms were mainly pain and swelling.
    03
    Parasitic arthritis, diagnosis can be based on the patient’s epidemiology and laboratory results
  8. Pathophysiology
    A parasite that invades the skeletal system widely; Echinococcosis in the bone, leading to osteoporosis and echinococcosis
  9. Diagnostic methods
    The diagnosis of echinococcosis can be determined by combining epidemiological data, contact history, clinical manifestations, X-ray examination and other auxiliary examinations. The incidence of arthritis in the cauda equina is mainly related to the incidence rate, history of contact, clinical manifestations and X-ray.
  10. Laboratory inspection method
    The positive reaction was found in the skin test of hydatid infection (cassony method). Serological tests include hydatid specific antibodies and circulating antigen tests. Indirect hemagglutination test, latex agglutination test, enzyme linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) are all the detection methods. Blood smear examination showed that some patients had filariasis at night. The synovial fluid was examined with cream, sterility and hyperlipidemia.
  11. Other inspection methods
    The X-ray examination of filariasis was found in the local periosteum thickening, periostitis and cortex thickening. The degree of destruction of bone cortex is different because of the invasion of periosteum and bone to form new periosteum bone. Lymphangiography showed obstruction of lymph nodes and varices.
    04
    Parasite arthritis needs to be distinguished from chondrosarcoma, and the complications have obvious neurological symptoms
  12. Differential diagnosis
    Coccidiosis of bone spinous is a rare disease. It needs to be different from giant cell tumor, fibrocystic osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and so on. The spinal focus should be different from tuberculosis and benign tumor. It should be different from rheumatoid arthritis. Need to distinguish from osteoarthritis tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, suppurative arthritis.
  13. Complications
    Echinococcosis, spinal cord and sacrum cyst can compress spinal cord or cauda equina nerve, causing obvious nerve symptoms, signs, and even paraplegia. Later stage can lead to secondary chronic suppurative osteomyelitis. When the joint is involved, it can cause pathological dislocation. Filariasis infection with swelling of rubber. Secondary bacterial infection, repeated attacks can cause periostitis or periostitis. The main symptoms of the late stage of arthritis of Dendrolimus punctatus are the disorder of joint function, deformity and rigidity.
  14. Treatment
    (1) The treatment of Echinococcus granulosus
    The principle of treatment is to completely remove the diseased bone, but it is unlikely. Scraping and grafting bone is a common method, and albendazole is also a common method.
    (2) Filariasis
    Since the quasi Dirofilaria imitis is a self limiting disease, it is rare in human beings. Filariasis larvae infected with such animals will not develop into adults in human body, but those who cannot develop normally will also be pathogenic. Respiratory tract infection is a common disease in clinic. Sometimes, patients may have joint pain and lower extremity joint self limiting arthritis. The disease is a self limiting disease and does not require special treatment.
    (3) Treatment of Dendrolimus punctatus
    Can use adrenal cortical hormone, anti allergy drug, chlorophenamine, aspirin, etc. These drugs are commonly used in daily life to eliminate inflammation and pain, can be used to protect the function of joints. The long-term fistula, sinus and osteopathy can be treated with sinus resection and debridement. The patients with progressive ankylosis can be treated with joint replacement.
  15. Prognosis
    The prognosis depends on the location and scope of involvement. There will be pelvic and spinal lesions, and the prognosis is poor. After treatment, Dendrolimus punctatus rarely recurred, but it is difficult for patients with joint deformity or dysfunction to recover completely.
  16. Prevention methods
    The patients were treated comprehensively, the source of infection was removed and the intermediate host was removed. The host should be removed from the epidemic area. The publicity of environmental health in pastoral areas is widely carried out. Good health habits should be developed in early childhood to avoid contact with sick animals.

Just take vitamin B12, can you relieve insomnia?

Good sleep plays a key role in human body. The importance of sleep has been put forward as early as in the “Emperor’s Neijing”.
But modern people, with their fast-paced lifestyles, work and family pressures, are increasingly neglecting the pursuit of good sleep.
Going to bed late and staying up all night is something almost everyone has experienced. More and more people are suffering from sleep disorders, which are painful but still difficult to resolve.
Some people say that vitamin B12 can regulate sleep, is it true?

Adequate and regular sleep is extremely important to a person’s body.

Following the laws of nature, the normal bedtime and sleep time is generally before 10 p.m., but how many people can do that now?
For a large number of people, this time may be just the beginning of the evening life, eating and drinking little is equally unpleasant, psychological satisfaction but the body is increasingly consumed.
Good sleep can help us relieve the tiredness of the day, keep our energy and the food we eat can be better absorbed.

After a whole day’s work and study, our brains will be very tired, and when we have enough sleep, our brains will be much more awake and relaxed.
For minors, a good sleep is also the basis of their physical growth and development.
Usually we will find that after staying up late, the body will be very weak, memory loss, weakened immunity, in the long run, the body will be in a state of sub-health.
If you can’t catch up on sleep during the day, chronic sleep deprivation can take a huge toll on your body and mind.

Some people say that taking vitamin B12 can help insomnia. Many people hear this and take B12 every day, but is this true?
Researchers in Japan have found that taking vitamin B12 can help you sleep, but not because of the vitamin itself.
Many people because of insomnia, become poor appetite, so the body gradually lack of nutrition, taking vitamin B can help the body supplement nutrition, but for people with insomnia, their most critical problem is that the body’s internal system has some disorders, such as endocrine disorders, anxiety and tension.

So what better way can you relieve insomnia?

  1. Find out what type of insomnia you have

Many people suffer from insomnia, but not everyone has the same causes and types of insomnia.
From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine, insomnia is mainly divided into the following types, heart fire, liver qi depression, spleen and stomach imbalance, malnutrition, blood heat.
Each type of person should find the treatment that works best for them.
For example, malnourished people should supplement their own Qi and blood, and work hard on eating, such as jujube and lily are good food materials.
And the heart fire people should go ahead decrease internal heat, this kind of people easily upset irritable temper big, sleep like a fire block in the heart, weekdays can drink rose tea, eat less spicy food.

  1. Give your sleep a ritual

Many people nowadays ignore the importance of sleep, not to mention the ritual of sleep.
But sleep is a very important thing in our life, we put a little effort on it, may get a different surprise.
For those who suffer from insomnia, put sleep at the top of your list.
Just before you go to sleep, keep your body on an even keel. Don’t eat too much or go to bed with an empty stomach.
Try not to play with electronic devices before going to bed, and dim the light.
If you can’t fall asleep immediately, listen to soothing music.
Try not to do mental tasks before going to bed. Try not to do exercise before going to bed to get your body excited.
Stick to a period of time to adjust their own schedule, the state of mind put peace, believe that good sleep will find you.

Conclusion: Taking vitamin B12 alone is not a good way to relieve sleep.
We should find out the key root cause of our insomnia, the appropriate medicine.
Take care of your body and give your body more time to rest. I believe you will have better and better changes with enough sleep.

Medical students steal narcotic drugs to kill their girlfriend

Xiaomeng, after all, failed to usher in the first ray of sunshine in 2020.
This girl in the Department of anesthesia in a medical college in Sichuan Province, in order to celebrate the cross-year celebration on the evening of December 31, 2019, boyfriend Han Mou and she discussed to go to a hospital to steal heptane. It is reported that heptane is an inhaled anesthetic, which will aggravate hypotension and respiratory dysfunction when anesthesia deepens, and can only be used if there is a professional doctor.
Previously, boyfriend Han Mou once used the opportunity of internship in hospital, stole a bottle of heptane and girlfriend Xiao Meng for many times. During the period, Xiao Meng had a respiratory difficulty due to the ingestion of heptane, so he was able to escape from danger after an emergency rescue by Han.
But in that cross night, Meng never woke up again. After being identified by the Western China forensic science identification center of Sichuan Province, the cause of Xiaomeng’s death was in line with the death of heptane poisoning.
Recently, China judicial documents network has published a verdict on the crime of death caused by a fault of Han, who was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment and compensated the family of the dead for more than 83000 yuan.
The hammer. According to visual China

And my girlfriend in the rental room and took drugs
Wake up in the morning and find my girlfriend dead
At about 7:30 in the morning, Han was waken up by the alarm clock at the head of the bed. When he woke up, he found his girlfriend Meng had died.
At that time, in the morning of January 1, 2020, Han Mou cried to call his mother: “sorry, something happened.” Han father then called and asked his son what happened. Han told his father on the phone that he and his girlfriend Meng had taken an anesthetic before they went to bed and found their girlfriend dead in the morning.
Han told his father that the drug is not a drug, it is an anesthetic… On the phone, Han father asked his son to call the police.
That morning, after receiving a police call from Han, the police in the district immediately arrived at the scene. Han was detained by police on the same day for stealing heptane, and was detained for criminal detention on January 10, 2020, and arrested on August 5, the same year. After being identified by the Western China forensic science identification center of Sichuan Province, the cause of Xiaomeng’s death was in line with the death of heptane poisoning.
Han and his girlfriend are taking an anesthetic called heptane. It is reported that heptane can cause the dose-related cardiopulmonary function to be low, and the deepening of anesthesia will aggravate the low blood pressure and low respiratory function. It should be used by special calibrated volatiles to accurately control its concentration, and excessive concentration will lead to blood pressure reduction, heart rate slowing down, severe respiratory inhibition and even death. Only personnel trained in the anesthesiology department can use it. Equipment for maintaining airway unobstructed, artificial oxygen, oxygen supply and circulating reproduction must be ready for use at any time.
A few days before the tragedy, Han had just taken the postgraduate examination. Han Mou, born in 1997, is a 2015 grade anesthesiologist in a medical college in Sichuan Province, and his girlfriend, Xiaomeng, is his junior sister. In the eyes of classmates, Han Mou has a good performance in learning. On Christmas night, 2019, Han sent a wechat to his mother, announcing his love with Xiao Meng, and also sent some photos of their lives.
Xiao Meng also studied Anesthesiology, and was a younger sister of Han, who decided their relationship on Christmas Day 2018. Han recalled that before the tragedy, Han mentioned that he was going to Xi’an for a tour with his girlfriend from January 14 to January 17, 2020, when he asked his family what was interesting in Xi’an.
At about 0 on January 1, 2020, in order to meet the new year, Xiao Meng sent a red envelope to his mother; On the other hand, Han also expressed his new year’s wishes to his family in his family group.
Han said that in the early morning of January 1, because of numbness, he and his girlfriend Xiao Meng both took seven x-alkane at the same time, and fell asleep
When Han woke up in the morning, he found his girlfriend Meng had died.

Boyfriend stole narcotics from an intern hospital twice
My girlfriend had difficulty breathing because of her ingestion
Han and his girlfriend took the heptane, which Han Mou stole from the hospital where he had been practicing.
According to Han, on December 31, 2019, he and his girlfriend discussed to steal heptane and then take food to celebrate the cross-year. That night, he went to the hospital anesthesia department, where he had previously practiced, and stole two bottles of heptane. It’s not the first time Han stole seven x-alkanes in a hospital, or the first time he and his girlfriend had taken food.
Han said that during June November 2019, he had been an intern in the anesthesia department of the hospital, and he had been exposed to heptane in the operating room and knew where the heptane was stored. Han said that heptane is a volatile drug. During the operation, he was a little bit drunk after passive inhalation. He told his girlfriend Xiaomeng who was learning anesthesia.
“She (girlfriend) also knows heptane, also mentioned that the anesthetist will take these drugs online, and inhale heptane will have a kind of pleasure, like after drinking a little drunk, half asleep, she let me get some back.” Han said that he also wanted that kind of feeling of being drunk, and he did not object.
On a day in mid October 2019, Han took a bottle of seven x alkanes in his internship hospital, and then took food with his girlfriend in a rental house. The next few days, the two took food several times together.
As a student of Anesthesiology Department of Medical College, Han Mou knew the consequences of heptane intake“ In operation, the dosage of narcotic drugs is calculated according to the patient’s weight. Excessive amount will cause respiratory inhibition. If no one is under supervision, it will endanger life and cause respiratory tract occlusion, and thus lead to death. I and Meng both know the harm of narcotic drugs, but out of luck, we want to experience the sense of hunting. In addition, we think that one person sucks, and one person will not be able to see it by the side. ” Han told me that he took three bottles of seven x-alkane twice in the hospital, all of which were taken in the hospital room during the off work time.
In fact, in the process of taking heptane by Han and his girlfriend, there was no danger signal. Han said that once, when his girlfriend little Meng was alone, he looked at her, and found that her girlfriend had shortness of breath and shortness of breath and other difficult breathing conditions after she was inhaled. He immediately gave her first aid. “After that, I told her not to take any more, and threw away the remaining third.”
According to Han, a former anesthesiologist in a hospital, heptane can only be used by the operation personnel, not for sale, special equipment and can not be used by itself, and can only be used if there is a professional doctor.

3 years of imprisonment for the crime of death caused by negligence
Compensation for the family members of the victim is more than RMB 83000
Afterwards, the people’s Procuratorate of Shunqing District, Nanchong City, Sichuan Province, charged Han Mou for the crime of death caused by negligence and filed a public prosecution.
According to the law, Han was a student of anesthesia major 2015 in a medical college before the case was committed, and was exposed to inhalation anesthetics heptane during the internship of the Department of anesthesia in the hospital. In mid October 2019, Han stole a bottle of seven x alkane from the hospital anesthetic preparation room, and then took food with his girlfriend Xiaomeng in the rental house several times. During one of the sucking, Xiao Meng had difficulty breathing, and was out of danger after emergency rescue by Han.
After dinner on December 31st, 2019, the two people discussed the theft of heptane for co-feeding, and the defendant Han Mou stole two bottles of heptane from the hospital and took them in their rental room. On January 1, 2020, Han found that Xiao Meng died. After the examination by the physical evidence identification center of the Ministry of public security, heptane and hexafluoroisopropanol were detected from liver tissue, heart blood and urine samples of Xiaomeng, and heptane and hexafluoroisopropanol were detected from a blood sample of Han.
The people’s Court of Shunqing District, Nanchong City, considered that Han, as a student of Anesthesiology Department of Medical College, knew that heptane intake was dangerous and needed to be operated by professionals with special devices. Heptane in the hospital was stolen and taken by the victim Xiaomeng. During the course of ingestion, he failed to pay full attention to the obligation, which resulted in the death of Xiaomeng, The act constitutes the crime of death caused by negligence, and the public prosecution organ charges facts and charges.
In court, Han expressed his willingness to compensate, pleaded guilty and punished, and said he was very sorry now. He deeply realized that the great pain caused by his behavior to the family of small Meng would never be compensated, and that the pain caused by himself and his family also needs to be compensated with his life.
Recently, China judicial document network released the first trial decision of the case. The court sentenced han to three years in prison for the crime of death caused by negligence. The total amount of compensation for the funeral expenses and death compensation of the victim’s family members was more than 83000 yuan.

World Day to Fight Obesity

World Obesity Day

As the global obesity problem is becoming more and more serious, the World Health Organization has identified “obesity” as one of the ten chronic diseases, and the prevention and treatment of obesity has become a major international event.
For this reason, the World Health Organization has designated May 11 as World Obesity Day every year.
The pronunciation of “5·11” is similar to “I want one”, and the final “1” stands for slim, which means “I want to be thin” in colloquial terms.

That’s what we did last time

Have you made a move?

On the eve of World Obesity Day

Learn more about the dangers of obesity

The hazards of obesity

Obesity is often associated with diseases such as dyslipidemia, fatty liver, hypertension, coronary heart disease, abnormal glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus. It can also be accompanied or complicated with obstructive sleep apnea, gallbladder disease, hyperuricemia and gout, osteoarthropathy, venous thrombosis, impaired reproductive function and some cancers.
Obesity may be a cause and risk factor for these health problems, or may share a common basis with these diseases.

Some researchers have suggested that obesity may even be a risk factor for the severity of novel coronavirus pneumonia, especially in younger patients.
Data from the US and France show that obesity is associated with a higher likelihood of hospital admission and severe illness among COVID-19 patients.

How to lose weight healthily

Intake, consume, both

  1. Stop eating and reduce your intake

To overweight fat person, food adjustment should be on the basis of controlling intake of total energy, maintain balanced diet.

In general, it is recommended to reduce energy intake by 300~500 kilocalories a day, strictly control the intake of edible oil and fat, moderate control of white rice noodles and meat, and ensure adequate intake of vegetables, fruits and milk.

Minimum amount of diet

What’s 1200 kilocalories?

3 two staple food

Two lean

One egg

1 cup milk (300 ml)

1 catty vegetables

1 point of oil

Why do you eat like this?
The energy of food mainly comes from the carbohydrate, protein and fat contained in food (these three substances are known as the “three productive nutrients” in nutrition).
Human intake of animal and plant food, digestion and decomposition into these three nutrients, produce a lot of energy.
In addition, dietary fiber, ethanol, organic acids, sugar alcohols can also provide a certain amount of energy for the body.

The level of food energy is related to its own nutritional composition. The more fat the food contains, the higher the converted energy will be. For example, fatty meat has a higher fat content than lean meat, and fried food has a high fat content.
Vegetables and fruits are high in fiber and water, low in fat and protein, and therefore, low in energy.

Move legs, more consumption

Among the four ways of energy consumption, the consumption of physical activity is the only one that can self-regulate energy consumption. With the increase of physical activity, the energy consumption will increase significantly.
So, pay attention to exercise, increase the consumption of physical activity, get rid of excess fat.

“Advice”

Aerobic exercise, to walk fast as the main form, it is recommended that 2 times a day, 30 minutes each time, can be put in lunch and dinner after half an hour, its main points have three: (1) stride: stride is larger than usual walking, walking stride.
② Brisk pace: take 1000-1200 steps every 10 minutes.
③ Long time: walk continuously for 30 minutes per unit.

Resistance training: recommended 1 times a day, 20 minutes each time, with moderate dumbbell exercises, etc., can design their own movements, step by step, according to one’s ability.

Be physically active whenever and wherever possible
Use your commute time

Reduce the amount of driving, car riding and sitting, increase the amount of walking, biking and climbing stairs, and increase the amount of physical activity.

Reduce sedentary time

During the work process, we can stand up and do more activities. We should get up every hour and do stretching exercises or aerobics. We should reduce screen time such as watching TV and playing mobile phones and do more outdoor walking and exercise.

Integrating Sports into Life

Diversified forms of sports combine housework, sports and exercise organically to make life colorful and enjoy sports.